It is important to anneal the bangle about once a year or so to keep the wires malleable, which will make it easier to bend it into the shape you want. When the bangle is kept malleable (the way you received it as new), the three wires will not develop the tendency to crack more readily.
It is even more important to anneal your three metal bangle more often, if your lifestyle demands that you remove the bangle on a regular basis such as having to go through airport metal scanners or if you are constantly squeezing it back into shape and hence bending it on a regular basis.
When the metal wires are bent on a regular basis, microscopic cracks can develop more readily in the silver wire, which hardens more quickly over time than the gold or copper. Most metals over time lose their malleability and become more rigid. This causes them to be more likely to crack when repetitively bent. This applies to all three pure metal wires that are in the bangle if they receive any kind of regular bending. It can be very expensive to repair or replace a three metal bangle. If well maintained, they should last for an average of 30 years or more on a person who does not sweat a lot in the area of the bangle.
Before you anneal it, however, you may prefer to clean the bangle, should there be excess dirt stuck between the wires. The extreme heat from the annealing process may turn this dirt buildup between the wires into a black carbon-based slag, which, though removable, can be time consuming to do so.
To anneal the three-metal bangle, the best or simplest method is to place it on a gas stove cooking ring, until some of the copper wire changes to a dim orange glow color (but not a yellow glow!). Then let it cool down very slowly at room temperature. Do not drop it in water to make it cool more quickly as this will only make the wires more rigid again and reverse the process! Remember, this is what the blacksmiths do to make steel super hard and the same works for all metals, so be sure to let it cool down slowly.
Because I don’t have a gas stove, I put mine on an electric ring turned up full and put a pan of water on top of it to reflect back the extra heat.
This will make the bangle look filthy as all the dirt between the wires carbonizes and the patina that may be on the copper or silver is sulphur based and likely to turn into dark grey flaky material also, thus as I suggested it is a good idea to remove as much residue with an old toothbrush and soapy water before annealing. You will still need to scrub it down after annealing but there will be less to rub off if you pre-scrub it.
To clean gold, just dish soap and a toothbrush should be enough, as pure gold does not tarnish. The gold wire on the bangle is pure 24 karat gold. Low karat gold can oxidize because of the other metals that make it into an alloy (often including silver, zinc and copper). But the three-metal astrological bangle is composed of pure metals. If after cleaning it with a toothbrush and non-abrasive toothpaste, you are still not happy with the removal of patina or dirt, then you can explore the other cleaning methods below.
There are several effective ways to clean the three metal bangle. Because you have three different metal elements, one metal cleaner does not work perfectly for all three. But it does not really matter. They will still work well enough to make the bangle look more shiny and attractive. Of course, there are some cleaners that will polish all three metals but they are also deeply corrosive and the goal is to not lose metal. Even the most aggressive cleaners do not penetrate more than a micron or two if they are used sparingly and briefly. However some users don’t want to go near them, so here are some other suggestions. I would, however, like to point out that at the micron level quite a bit of metal can wear off the bangle just by rubbing on the arm and interacting with acidic perspiration over the years. So I wouldn’t be too wildly concerned about some of the more gentle metal jewelry cleaners.
When cleaning the silver wire, it is important to use a silver cleaner that does not have a very strong acid or phosphates in it. For this we recommend a mild silver cleaner called “Twinkle.”
Another method of cleaning the bangle is to put it in a mix of baking soda with very hot water in an aluminum pan.
Lemons clean copper and silver very well because of the mild acid, even the oxalic acid in tomato sauce will clean copper if left on for 20 minutes or more. Sweat is generally acidic, and I have completely worn out the copper wire on two bangles in my much more physically active days in the hot outback of Australia. Our skin has a ph. of 5.4 so when we add sweat to the mix it is a perfect recipe for wearing down the copper wire over time.
For this reason, white vinegar, which has a very acidic ph level of 2, cleans copper very well, as does brown vinegar with a little salt in it. (I tried Apple Cider Vinegar, but it didn’t do anything because it is not acidic enough.) I wouldn't worry about losing any of the metal, as the tarnish (which is basically sulfur) is the part removed as long as you don't leave it in the liquid for more than thirty minutes. As a child I remember leaving copper coins in Coca-Cola (which is highly acidic) to shine them up. None of the above liquids will have any effect on the gold wire, as it is inert to these chemicals.
On another note, it is helpful for individuals to realize that the three-metal bangle is not the only way to benefit from the use of the benign strengthening effects of wearing the pure metals of gold, silver and copper.
I have often advised individuals to purchase a heavy 22karat chain and wear it around the neck if they have one or can easily purchase one. The reports I get back from such individuals is that they feel it has a strengthening effect, which would seem normal for a metal that represents and is claimed to have a similarity harmonically with the radiant energy of the life-giving Sun.
Because gold is so expensive, some clients of mine send me a pure gold Canadian Maple Leaf coin that weighs one ounce and will have very good skin contact if set against the skin. This way the coin is both an investment that they can sell later, and a useful astrological instrument while it is accruing value.
It is simple to go out and purchase a pure copper bangle weighing over half an ounce, though it would be better to buy one closer to one ounce. Wearing a pure silver bangle is a great idea but the issue is 99% of all silver jewelry is made of sterling silver or less. It is for this reason that www.astrogems.com offers the pure silver and copper wire bangles for those that cannot comfortably afford the three metal astrological bangle
We make these double pure silver, single pure copper wire bangles in similar proportions to the three metal astrological bangle; we just replace the gold wire with an extra pure silver wire.
Q: Please go into more detail about the weights of the different pure metal spring links in the pure metal spring link bangle?
Each spring link is composed of three separate parts. By far the largest part is the casing, which is the outer part that touches the skin. It is three times heavier than a part we call the horseshoe that holds the spring in place. The third part is a stainless steel, titanium alloy spring.
The weights of the different metals, gold, silver and copper spring links, are:
The 24 karat gold spring link casing weighs approximately 11 grams. The horseshoe part of the pure gold link has to be made into 22 karat gold because if it were made of pure gold, this part of the design would bend and wear out. We heat quench it to make it as hard as possible for its very high karat range. The 22 karat gold is 91.67 % gold. And it weighs a fraction under 4 grams. So to recap: the 24 karat gold spring link weighs approximately 11 grams in the casing.
The 22 karat gold spring link weighs approximately 8.5 grams in the casing. This is much lighter because the casing is much thinner due to the fact that the alloy is much harder. The 22 karat gold spring link weighs approximately 3 to 4 grams in the horseshoe.
Fine silver, spring links weigh approximately 4.6 grams in the casing, which comes to 6 grams when one includes the u part, which has to be made out of more durable sterling silver. Like pure gold, pure silver would bend and eventually break, if we made the u shaped, spring holding part out of it.
The pure copper spring link weighs approximately 3.7 grams. We are working on making these copper spring links much heavier - up to 6.5 grams and are hoping to have the new heavier ones by July of 2014.
The weights of the three metal bangle:
Without getting into specifics on the three metal bangle, I can, however, give an approximate weight ratio. I don't feel it appropriate to divulge the exact matrix recipe of pure metal wires without permission, etc.
The pure gold wire in the SRF three metal bangle weighs a little over 33 grams, which is the same weight as the three pure gold spring links.
The pure silver wire in the SRF three metal astrological bangle weighs a little under 24 grams.
The pure copper wire weighs a little under 13 grams, which is close to the weight of the 3 pure copper spring links.
The three metal bangle that SRF makes weighs a little under 72 grams.
For a more technical answer about the annealing process please read below.
Annealing is a metallurgical process involving the heating and then slow cooling of metal, during the course of working it, in order to increase its ductility and reduce any brittleness caused by bending. Annealing is especially important when working gold, silver and copper. The heat treatment must alter the microstructure of the metal, causing changes in properties such as reducing its brittleness and stiffness avoiding the metals consequent ability to form cracks. The pure metal, spring bangle should not need annealing, as the design does not get bent back and forth. With some wearers of the three metal bangle that tend to keep pushing their bangle closed, the need for annealing is paramount. Otherwise, like a paperclip that keeps getting bent back and forth, the wires will tend to crack.
The price of gold spring links partly depends on the actual price of gold. The metal caster, who casts gold pieces for us, bases his price on the daily spot price of gold plus the 5% commission his suppliers charge him. If you're interested in the pure gold spring links, we can tell you it's much less expensive to provide your own pure gold, as in a gold coin for example, rather than have our metal caster provide it. He'll put a markup on the gold he provides in addition to his casting fee.
Sometimes a customer will prefer to have a pure one ounce gold coin bezel set into a silver blank instead of melting it down. This would be too big to wear on the wrist but can be fine on the upper arm for some individuals. It is important to note that, if you want to supply the gold coin, purchase a pure non-alloyed gold coin. For instance, the well known Krugerrand gold coins that include an ounce of gold are only 92% gold alloy,so are not suitable. As I write this in early 2014, it is obvious that gold coins or gold and silver are excellent investments and I urge anyone who can, to invest in these metals while the Fed is printing so much paper money. The one ounce Canadian maple leaf or the American Buffalo are suitable coins for wearing in a bangle.
Some individuals, who do this, realize that they can wear the gold coin, some gemstones plus enough of the pure copper and silver, all in the same bangle on the upper arm. This is a way of minimizing the area of jewelry and wearing a lot of frequency enhancers in a discreet manner. The bangle can be worn above the bicep and be out of sight, when wearing a tee shirt etc.
Here's an example of an emailed answer to an enquiry for a three metal spring bangle.
Here's an estimate of the spring links that would be used to make a pure gold/silver/copper bangle using the gold wire in your old bangle, if the total number of spring links is 19.
For the pure gold spring link in thicker-walled construction, I calculate that the casing part is about 11 grams of 24K gold. So the gold wire in your bangle once removed for melting would be just about enough to cast the casings for three links, maybe just a gram or two shy. Then the "horseshoe" part of the links would be cast in additional 22K gold. I believe Nick imagined making this spring link bangle with your arm size with four of the links in gold, but that would require about a third of an ounce of additional gold which seems an unnecessary expense given that three gold links give you over a troy ounce of fine gold. But you could get four gold links if you want them. Alternatively you could add an extra pure silver spring link in its place.
So it works out if you supply the gold for each spring link. The casting, assembly, polishing and handling fees would come to $150 for each pure gold link. This charge is based on a minimum of three being made. And we would return any unused gold.
It is possible that if you do not provide quite enough gold that the cost would go up. We have to have excess that we keep in stock for the sprues. So it's possible that the bill may be significantly higher when allowing for posting with full insurance and the cost of any unsupplied gold requirements. As it could be the caster may need to add a gram or two of extra gold to make three casings.
In fine silver, given the average weight of the thicker-walled spring link casings, we feel that at least four links are needed. These silver links are $38 each, so four of them would be $152. That leaves 12 links in pure copper at $8 each for a cost of $96. You could also choose to have more silver links and fewer copper ones, if you feel like it."
So the cost of a bangle with three fine gold links, four fine silver links, and twelve copper links would be just about:
Casting /assembly of gold parts $150 x 3 = $ 450
4 silver spring links $ 38 x 4 = $ 152
12 spring links $ 8 x 12 = $ 96
Insurance, postage and packing = $ 35
For a package with this much gold in it, we would insist upon very secure, insured shipping, probably registered mail, so the shipping and handling can go up to about $40 depending on where the package is being delivered. Generally allow at least two to three weeks for the making of this astrological, spring bangle.
I would also like to draw to your attention to what Paramahansa Yogananda wrote in his Autobiography of a Yogi about words from his great Guru.
'It is only when a traveler has reached his goal that he is justified in discarding his maps. During the journey, he takes advantage of any convenient short cut. The ancient rishis discovered many ways to curtail the period of man's exile in delusion. There are certain mechanical features in the law of karma which can be skillfully adjusted by the fingers of wisdom.
All human ills arise from some transgression of universal law. The scriptures point out that man must satisfy the laws of nature, while not discrediting the divine omnipotence. He should say: 'Lord, I trust in Thee, and know Thou canst help me, but I too will do my best to undo any wrong I have done.' By a number of means - by prayer, by will power, by yoga meditation, by consultation with saints, by use of astrological bangles - the adverse effects of past wrongs can be minimized or nullified.
Just as a house can be fitted with a copper rod to absorb the shock of lightning, so the bodily temple can be benefited by various protective measures. Ages ago our yogis discovered that pure metals emit an astral light which is powerfully counteractive to negative pulls of the planets. Subtle electrical and magnetic radiations are constantly circulating in the universe; when a man's body is being aided, he does not know it; when it is being disintegrated, he is still in ignorance. Can he do anything about it?
This problem received attention from our rishis; they found helpful not only a combination of metals, but also of plants and - most effective of all - faultless jewels of not less than two carats. The preventive uses of astrology have seldom been seriously studied outside of India. One little-known fact is that the proper jewels, metals, or plant preparations are valueless unless the required weight is secured, and unless these remedial agents are worn next to the skin.'
I have deeply been thrilled with the opportunity to evaluate and research different pure metals. Some of which are not easy to obtain in their pure form and even more difficult to form into a wearable manner. One metal I intend to be doing much more writing on soon, after more designs are made for sale, is Bismuth. Tin and zinc in their pure form and iron, have my interest also. But for this discussion, I am concentrating on pure gold, silver and copper.
Q: Did Swami Sri Yukteswar wear a three-metal astrological bangle?
Many people believe that Swami Sri Yukteswar wore a three-metal astrological bangle of gold, silver, and copper, such as the one worn by Paramahansa Yogananda. It’s quite understandable for any individual to assume so, for several reasons:
- Self-Realization Fellowship generously goes to considerable effort to make them available for sale to their members,
- Paramahansa Yogananda was photographed wearing one,
- Swami Sri Yukteswar extolled the benefits of wearing metals and gems, as quoted by Yogananda in his Autobiography of a Yogi: “This problem received attention from our rishis; they found helpful not only a combination of metals, but also of plants and, most effective of all, faultless jewels of not less than two carats. The preventive uses of astrology have seldom been seriously studied outside of India.... For general purposes I counsel the use of an armlet of gold ,silver and copper.”
Did Sri Yukteswar himself wear a three-metal bangle, and what is known about the astrological bangles he did wear?
Without the great service and interest Swami Sri Yukteswar showed in using gemstones to lessen karmic irritation or suffering, Astrogems would never have come into being. In many ways he is the founder and leading light of our company and how we promote this sacred science. In my nearly 40 years of being a member of SRF, I have had the profound privilege of seeing some photos not commonly seen of Swami Sri Yukteswar. In one particular photo, a large one in surprisingly good resolution, he is seen bare chested and it’s very easy to make out the nine-gem astrological bangle on his left arm, worn above the elbow. The design of the gem bangle he is wearing is exceptionally similar to the link-to-link “Standard Design” that Master also wore and www.Astrogems.com makes. His nine-gem bangle was worn using a chain and hook to keep it tight above the elbow rather than using expandable spring-loaded links such as we use at Astrogems, as those were not available for manufacture during Sri Yukteswar’s physical incarnation.
On his right arm is another bangle that is definitely not the three-metal astrological bangle. One could conclude that this second bangle is made of silver based on how it looks in the black and white photo. It could even be a lead and silver bangle similar to the one Master wore, as it appears to be identical in its thick round wire shape but perhaps a little more slim.
Having seen this photo taken in his later years, I feel safe assuming that Swami Sri Yukteswar did not wear a three-metal astrological bangle similar to the design made by SRF but instead wore a nine-gem astrological bangle and another large metal bangle possibly of silver. There is another reference to this nine-jeweled astrological bangle by Sananda Lal Ghosh on page 226 of “Mejda”.
Q: How do I care for and maintain my three-metal astrological bangle?
A: The three metals in the bangle are all pure, not alloys, and as such they harden over time which can make the bangle stiff and brittle, more prone to cracking. This is a normal metallurgical development. For effective care and maintenance, it is a good idea to mildly anneal the bangle once or twice a year. The annealing process will keep the metals pliable and easier to adjust without hairline cracks developing. It's easily done on a gas burner on the stove. The low temperature gas will not melt the bangle, but keep an eye on it and don’t let it get white hot...red hot is fine. After it has been in the flame for about 4 minutes, turn off the burner and let it cool very slowly. If you dip it in water it will go very hard again, so it is essential to let it cool slowly. If you often have to bend your bangle to remove it (for example if you fly a lot), then without annealing it may start to develop a structural weakness and thus may need to be annealed more often than once a year. Any residue on the bangle will carbonize during the process and the bangle may look quite different afterward. This patina flake material can be removed with a toothbrush and toothpaste, or you may use lemon juice.
For a more technical answer about the annealing process please read below.
Annealing is a metallurgical process involving the heating and then slow cooling of metal during the course of working it in order to increase its ductility and reduce any brittleness caused by bending. Annealing is especially important when working gold, silver, and copper. The heat treatment must alter the microstructure of the metal, causing changes such as reducing its brittleness and stiffness and the metals' consequent tendency to form cracks.
Copper is composed of perfect crystals. Copper has a cubic crystal structure. It is the particular variation (face centered cubic) that gives it its extreme ductility so that you can bend a wire into really sharp curves. Aluminum, silver, and gold among others have the same crystal shaped structure. Generally annealing is done at greater than 1/2 of the melting point on the absolute temperature scale. Copper melts at 1083C = 1356K so the annealing is done at greater than 678K = 405C = 761F. However, it will take a fairly long time at the lower end of the range so it is more common to anneal at about 700 to 800C. The copper can be worked and annealed many times. Wear and tear on the arm along with acidic wastes in sweat can dissolve the copper wire in the astrological bangle over a few years. And for this reason we often replace the copper wire in some bangle repairs after the person has worn it for more than 10 years. Generally this occurs with persons who live in very humid climates or do a lot of sweat-producing activities.
You can anneal and heat the bangle with whatever safe form of heat you have to a dull red glow. The woodstove, the barbecue, a torch, or the electric or gas stove will work just fine. Just remember that the copper will be hot enough to ignite most flammable objects if you set it down on them and it will give you a nasty burn if you are not careful. After heating, it is safer to leave it on the stove and let it cool down, and then still use a cloth some 7 minutes later to test that the temperature is not too high. In addition, copper and gold are excellent heat conductors. So heating one end of the wire red hot will quickly result in the other end getting hot, too! Best of luck with this. It’s not rocket science, so go ahead and anneal your bangle if you have not done it in the last year.
Q: I hear that Self Realization Fellowship sells these astrological bangles. Are you competing with them?
A: Many Years ago I was asked by a senior monastic of SRF to make the three-metal bangles. This was because Self Realization Fellowship http://www.yogananda-srf.org/index.html doesn't make three-metal bangles for non-members of SRF. As a monastic order, they do not want to become primarily identified worldwide as a supplier of three-metal bangles, or to get involved with the jewelry demands of the world. They do not wish to create the misleading impression amongst those they are trying to serve, or amongst some aspiring meditators, that the blessings of the three-metal bangle are more significant than studying and integrating the teachings of Paramahansa Yogananda, or more valuable than the inexpensive correspondence lessons they offer. The main role of SRF is to encourage others to pursue initiation into the Kriya yoga meditation technique, and they want to be careful that a wrong perspective on the three-metal bangle is not developed by those who aren't already students of the lessons http://www.yogananda-srf.org/aboutsrf/index.html#lessons .
It's understandable that when a person not versed in yoga philosophy buys an astrological bangle, they might feel that the bangle was enough, or that Paramahansa Yogananda did not have much else to offer. Clearly SRF does not want to contribute to this potential misunderstanding. At the same time they do not want to stand in the way of others acquiring such a helpful tool, if they have a strong desire for one. It's for this reason that Astrogems started to make and repair them. By all means if you are a lessons student interested in buying a three-metal bangle, you can call the Mother Center at Tel: (323) 225-2471 9:00 am to 5:00 pm Pacific Time and ask for the bangle department . Or alternatively you can visit 3880 San Rafael Avenue, Dept. 9W Los Angeles, CA 90065-3298 USA and make inquiries at the visitor’s center.
Commonly individuals do not fit it to their upper arm or wrist in an ergonomic comfortable shape. It needs to be shaped to the contours of where you decide to wear it. And this is best done upon receiving it, while it is still more malleable for shaping. I have seen a lot of triangular shaped bangles on oval shaped wrists!! Also, if you choose to wear it on the upper arm make sure your upper arm is not too big or you will be pushing it closed on a regular basis which in turn will make the silver wire more likely to crack at the bend area.
Some individuals use a silicon water tube forced over each end to make the bangle stay on their upper arm above the bicep. This has had a lot of success and these clear silicon water tubes can be purchased at any large hardware store.
They are made of a clear plastic silicon and the inside diameter can be stretched to squeeze over both ends of the bangle. This makes a complete circle that helps the bangle from stretching open.
Every year it is a good idea to anneal the bangle. This is especially true, if you need to take it off often at airport security checks or such. If your bangle is very seldom removed or altered then this annealing can be done every 3 or 4 years. If it is very seldom removed, and very seldom adjusted, say only twice a year, then the annealing process is not that important.
If it was the copper wire, it could be that it got thinner and finally dissolved away at its thinnest point. This was probably the result of the bangle moving up and down on your wrist or upper arm and being eroded by the acidic influence of perspiration as well. With more active individuals or those that live in more humid, hot or tropical climates, perspiration can be an issue. Perspiration is always acidic and tends to slowly dissolve copper. It’s this simple - if you work out a lot and the bangle moves up and down your wrist say in a game of racquetball or gardening. Then you may get 10 to 20 years of use before the copper wire will need replacement. Annealing will not make any difference to the copper wire dissolving away. Look carefully at the copper wire on the side that touches the skin. You may be surprised to see how it has worn away.
I have never seen a pure silver wire that has been worn down by acidic perspiration. This is not how they break. The silver wire tends to crack, if the wire has been bent back and forth at a certain point over a period of a few years. This is much less likely to occur if the bangle has been annealed. If it has not been annealed, then the silver wire in time becomes more rigid and less malleable, subjecting its crystalline aligned atoms to be more stressed when bending and more likely to crack with the repetitive bending. Think of a paper clip being bent back and forth. In a short time the metal will crack. If it is annealed, the silver or gold will last a very long time and should never crack, unless the bangle gets constant adjustments like squeezing it closed with your hand.
Another way to ensure that the same area of the bangle is not becoming stressed after annealing is to slightly alter the shape contour so that the same area is not always rubbing against the wrist or being bent on the arm.
When some folks say, “my karma broke the bangle,” this is a little presumptuous to put it mildly. All metals have their own scientifically based maintenance regime. Copper dissolves slowly with acidic perspiration and movement up and down the arm. And the silver wire will crack more readily if bent a lot and if it is not annealed. The pure gold wire will very seldom be damaged as it maintains its malleability for a much longer time and does not react with acidic perspiration.
The bottom line is to try to find a place on your arm that is comfortable without the bangle opening up and then your bangle should last many years. It is a good idea to chat with friends who also wear the astrological bangle and gain their insights.
Many airport security officials do not insist on it as long as you show it to them and are prepared to say you don’t want to take it off. If it’s too awkward, then take it off. If you do take it off, try to have a bag with a zip closure or a secure container to leave it in, while it goes through the scan check. Also, try not to stretch it open more than you have too, as this is when the most damage occurs towards cracking the silver wire. One technique I have done with some success is to merely put my other hand over the bangle, when I walk through the scanner. This sometimes doesn’t trigger the sensor. One client said that if you put a credit card between the wires, it doesn’t pick up the signal but I find that a bit too complicated.
It is our belief that a broken silver wire does not matter that much, except if it is stabbing the wearer or if it means the rest of the bangle is going to also break soon. The silver wire is the most likely wire to break after copper. Once broken the silver is nigh impossible to adequately solder together because the copper and gold wires conduct an enormous amount of heat during the solder process. When we do repairs, we only replace the whole silver wire because to solder the wires back together is generally a short-term fix that is unlikely to last. We have received a lot of bangles that a jeweler tried to fix by soldering the silver metal wire back together only to discover that the fix did not last long. The bangle still works fine with a crack in the silver wire or if it is broken in two parts. Solder on the other hand is not a pure metal and is not an ideal solution.
As long as the bangle is still comfortable there is not an immediate rush to get it repaired. If you have not worn it for very long and the silver wire cracks, you will need to realize that this may happen again, if you treat the next repaired bangle the same way. If your lifestyle does not allow for a long term use of the bangle you may want to reconsider wearing it a different way such as using a silicon tube on your upper arm or getting a pure three metal spring bangle from astrogems.com.
Generally, if the gold wire breaks, the other two wires are broken also. Gold is the most malleable of the three wires and hence the least likely to break. So far we have only seen one bangle with a broken gold wire and that one had the other two wires break first. If an individual has a bangle that gets that far gone it's probably best they contact Self- Realization Fellowship to trade out on their bangle.
We keep our sources confidential but for many years the company we used, supplied SRF with the same pure gold and silver wires with the same thickness. However, I do not know if this large company is still SRF’s official supplier.
Over 20 years ago, SRF’s suppliers told me that we ordered the exact same size wires SRF ordered. Even though we know the exact dimensions and weight of the three metal bangle, we don’t share the view that there is some very specific magic formula that will not work unless strictly followed. Of course, we are exceptionally strict when making the three metal bangle. We do it in a way that uses the exactly the same weights that SRF uses. Often individuals forget that they can wear a good copper bangle, a good pure silver bangle and a gold chain of the correct purity. If the weight is more than the SRF three metal bangle, then I firmly believe this is a great way to have close to the same astrological benefits.
It is important to not become too dogmatic about any one design, when it’s mostly about purity of metal, sufficient weight and permanent skin contact. It surprises me that there are so many members of SRF, who do not think to at least wear a copper bangle and some pure silver, if they cannot afford a three metal astrological bangle. To find out more on the fantastic benefits of copper go to www.copperspringbangle.com
For those on a budget or want to get a bangle for a friend but can not comfortably afford one with gold. We suggest our pure silver and copper bangles as an option. As already stated Silver represents the qualities of the Moon and copper is a great aid to strengthening the influence of Mars.
As I have mentioned, it amazes me that so many people who want a three metal bangle but have other financial restrictions, do not at least get a bangle made of pure copper or one of pure silver and copper. Astrogems.com makes both in a similar design and we consider one of our designs more effective from a perspective of skin contact and comfort. A pure copper bangle can be bought for less than 20 dollars and one with pure silver wires and a pure copper wire can be $198 or more. The bangle we promote as being the most potent is the copper spring bangle and silver and gold spring links may be added if desired. www.copperspringbangle.com
SRF has done so in the past and that was when the gold price spiked severely in 1980. They started making them again when the price came down. One day it may happen again, when the price of gold inevitably goes to a stratospheric level. However, this is just a speculation.
Pure 24Karat gold by itself is a very soft, bendable and fragile metal. The stronger much more rigid pure silver wire is wrapped around the gold wire in a stretched manner which it optimizes the durability of the design. If one were to invent the simplest way to join three metals together, it would probably be this design. Without having the reliable luxury of having in house professional jewelers, it would be very complicated for the SRF ashram to make some other designs with the same amount of metal. If worn carefully on an arm that does not perspire too much along with regular annealing, the bangle should last several decades. The problem is that many active yogis do perspire during healthy activities and this clever design can wear out. Many times it is worn above the bicep and so is constantly being pressed more closely to the skin. This will tend to open the bangle. Every time this is done it prospectively is weakening the silver wire at the bend area. Master created an ashram for monastics and did not want to create a high tech jewelry company to service the members or the world. It is obvious that he was satisfied with the simplicity of this design for doing its job. When one evaluates the evolution of the armrest for the Om meditation technique. It is reasonable to assume that this would not be the only effective design.
It is not the job of Self-Realization Fellowship to be recommending wearing bangles. They are aware that it is a complex, deep subject that monastics do not train for. Also, much irritation can be created, if for instance, a monastic suggested to a woman that she should get one, her husband is not in SRF nor sympathetic to SRF and wants to prioritize the funds for something else like the children’s college fund. This makes it obvious that SRF cannot be placed in the middle of a family or personal situation by recommending expensive bangles of any kind. SRF very much wants to leave the decision and responsibility of whether to purchase one with the discernment of the SRF member and does not want to be involved in any misunderstanding that may arise via differing family viewpoints.
There is some debate on this subject and there are several considerations an individual might want to ponder. The first consideration depends on if you are wearing any other kind of bangle or watch. If you have a nine gem astrological bangle on your left upper arm then I would wear the three metal astrological bangle on your right arm. If you have a large protruding bone on your wrist and don’t like knocking it with the three metal bangle, then you may prefer to wear it above the elbow or bicep. If you have a very wide upper arm then the wrist may work best for you. If the bangle is on the upper arm and the ends are not close to touching each other, it is often a good idea to use a thin silicon water tube to hold the ends close to each other in a way that will prevent the ends from stretching apart and thus needing to be pushed in. If you don’t like the look of it or don’t want others to see it then the upper arm can be preferable.
Some individuals will not purchase a bangle on account of it not having a low profile and they feel that it will draw too much attention to itself. If this is the case I suggest that they look into the low profile three or two metal stretch spring bangle made by astrogems. Again this is not to say this design is better or more effective we just offer it, as some customers prefer its close fitting design. The profile of it is so low that if someone taps your arm they may not feel it.
What matters most is that the bangle is well shaped to the area of the arm where it is worn so that it is both comfortable and in constant contact with the skin.
Paramahansa Yogananda wore his three metal bangle on his left arm above the elbow beside his lead and silver bangle. He wore his nine-gem bangle on his right arm above the elbow. The nine-gem bangle that Yogananda wore is of the same kind that www.astrogems.com has been making for over 28 years. Swami Sri Yukteswar also wore a nine-gem bangle but I have found no evidence as yet that he wore a three metal bangle, though I suspect he did. During Yogananda’s incarnation the technology of the day did not provide a more comfortable spring based design, with the stretchable spring links, which allows one to the nine-gem bangle to be comfortably and discreetly worn above the bicep.
The wire manufacturers charge about $100 to make the pure gold wire. It is over one ounce of pure gold, the pure silver and copper wires are not so expensive. But when you add sales tax it’s no wonder they can cost over $2,200. Personally I consider it a great service that SRF can sell these bangles with near zero profit after all the many costs. When someone asks us to make them one I always first ask if they are a member so that they can get one from SRF as there price is less. SRF wants to ensure they stay a monastically based organization and do not become a large jewelry supply company to the world to ensure this only offer the bangles to SRF members.
That’s a great question that many do not even think to ask. Paramahansa Yogananda wrote clearly that gems are best of all in the Autobiography of a Yogi, Chapter 16, Outwitting the Stars:
'Then, dear Master, why do you want me to wear an astrological bangle?' I ventured this question after a long silence, during which I had tried to assimilate Sri Yukteswar's noble exposition. 'It is only when a traveler has reached his goal that he is justified in discarding his maps. During the journey, he takes advantage of any convenient short cut. The ancient rishis discovered many ways to curtail the period of man's exile in delusion. There are certain mechanical features in the law of karma which can be skillfully adjusted by the fingers of wisdom. All human ills arise from some transgression of universal law. The scriptures point out that man must satisfy the laws of nature, while not discrediting the divine omnipotence. He should say: 'Lord, I trust in Thee, and know Thou canst help me, but I too will do my best to undo any wrong I have done.' By a number of means by prayer, by will power, by yoga meditation, by consultation with saints, by use of astrological bangles - the adverse effects of past wrongs can be minimized or nullified. Just as a house can be fitted with a copper rod to absorb the shock of lightning, so the bodily temple can be benefited by various protective measures. Ages ago our yogis discovered that pure metals emit an astral light which is powerfully counteractive to negative pulls of the planets. Subtle electrical and magnetic radiations are constantly circulating in the universe; when a man's body is being aided, he does not know it; when it is being disintegrated, he is still in ignorance. Can he do anything about it? This problem received attention from our rishis; they found helpful not only a combination of metals, but also of plants and - most effective of all - faultless jewels of not less than two carats. The preventive uses of astrology have seldom been seriously studied outside of India . One little-known fact is that the proper jewels, metals, or plant preparations are valueless unless the required weight is secured, and unless these remedial agents are worn next to the skin.'
I think it is apparent that when one reads; most effective of all - faultless jewels of not less than two carats.
Quite obviously the nine gem planetary bangle that astrogems.com crafts can be more potent than the three metal bangle, which only represents the influences of three planets. Also it is interesting that as yet I have not found any reference to Swami Sri Yukteswar wearing a three metal astrological bangle.
Call up the International Headquarters during a normal office hours and ask for the “Bangle Department” 3880 San Rafael Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90065-3219 USA. Telephone (323) 225-2471 9:00 a.m. — 5:00 p.m. (Pacific Time).
If you are a member of SRF they will be happy to sell one to you. It is not advised to ask for advice about getting one, as SRF does not wish to play the role of encouraging members to purchase them. For they prefer you to make this a personal decision.
The first criterion is to not be bothered that you don’t have one. After that it’s ok to investigate this question. I think this question is best answered by reading a part of a letter from Paramahansa Yogananda. to Rajarsi Janakananda who wore one. Personally if you are a person who believes it is prudent to have a few gold coins as savings then I feel strongly it is worth selling one for the similar value of the gold wire in a three metal bangle. If you are not attracted to the fairly rigid design of the three metal bangle investigate the three metal spring bangle that is promoted as being more ergonomic and confortable.
I would like to add a fresh perspective on the three metal bangle that many have not considered. Just as Yogananda so brilliantly conveyed that the three metal bangle can protect one like a copper rod protects a house from lightning. In his day and Sri Yukteswar's there were virtually no megahertz of AC radio frequencies bombarding the body and mind. The earth’s friendly DC hertz field is only 7.83 hertz. And an ordinary cell phone can be two million times more amplified and in the much less bio friendly AC megahertz. Add computers, cell towers and many other electronic frequency disturbers to the mix and this can create a very compelling logic to protect ones electrical body from outside influences. Wherever there is electricity there is frequency. And if there is too much of the wrong kind of frequency, any protective shield or harmonizer to homeostasis is an excellent idea.
Respected scientists are explaining that cancer or the cell mutation in the body can be the result of the cell maintaining the wrong frequency for a prolonged period.
Gemstones emanate a particular kind of bio-friendly frequency that is harmonically similar to the friendly planetary radiations. Over the millennia we have evolved to utilize these different stimulative and helpful frequencies to optimize our physical and spiritual health.
Modern technology needs to seriously take account of this and restrain its powerful disease creating bombardment of ac radio megahertz that proliferates so tragically where we live. At astrogems we study solutions to counter this modern day scourge and there are some amazing products out there, as well as gem and pure metal bangles.
Yogananda prophetically said in “ The Divine Romance”. “In this age, man will make great headway in the electrical or electromagnetic field of science. As Dwapara Yuga progresses, disease will be treated and healed more and more by rays. Vibratory energy can reach the electronic factors of the atoms, the building blocks of matter, where gross chemicals cannot penetrate.”
The above profound prophecy has been a remark I have followed with keen investigation regarding gems and other healing modalities. It is my view that for aiding the body and mind to find perfect frequency balance with the use of vibratory ray technology great and surprising health solutions can be found at http://healthycells.mediconsult.tv/home/130-purchasing-mediconsult-products.html
I can not recommend this technology enough as I have witnessed amazing results with many individuals and in my view it touches very closely with what Yogananda predicted would in time become a very well recognized field of medicine.
Yogananda wrote the following in a letter in 1938 to Rajarsi Janakananda, one of his leading disciples, While discussing the lesser three metal astrological bangle:
According to astrological laws, to do away with bad influences of planets there is nothing better than a bangle. Every two bodies of the universe attract. When this adhesive power of the body cells becomes lax with the advance of old age, the planetary pull becomes stronger, causing more laxity of the cells, inviting disease and mental disturbance. The bangle and its combinations of metals as fixed by the Rishis, emanate electrical rays unseen by human eyes which counteract all planetary vibrations. Just as a lightening rod is affixed to a house to absorb the falling thunder and lightening, so the bangle is a lightning rod to absorb the ferocity of bad planetary rays falling on the body. When disease attacks the body, or accidents are attracted by bad karma, or business troubles occur due to a weak body or disturbed nerves hence disturbed mind, the bangle will lessen the force of a physical or mental attack of karma. Besides, I heard Master say many times that Satan creates in the mind of the bangle wearer the impulse to take the bangle off so he could uninterruptedly punish him through the instrument of bad karma of past lives. I remember definitely instances of cases where a person could not wear the bangle as the arm rotted under it. One person had to change position of the bangle three or four times. He was cured of paralysis and some kind of fits. The bangle will also modify and lessen any wrong influences of business. Sometimes, to take the bangle off when one needs to even in that moment, is dangerous. I write this only to emphasize the laws of atomic electronic vibrations which God created and the Rishis discovered to counteract the evil planetary influences on the human body.
At astrogems.com we have pondered this difficulty for several decades. And after a lot of extensive research have drawn definite conclusions about various options.
We have discovered that a bangle that goes all the way around the arm seems to be more powerful than a C shaped bangle that does not do so. We have discovered that the influence of the metals seems to be amplified by the size of the area of constant skin contact.
Hence even though we have several pure Copper bangle designs available on our shopping cart we advise for effectiveness the pure copper spring bangle that can also include pure silver or gold.
Essentially it is great idea for some to wear a pure copper bangle but try to get one of at least one ounce in weight. These can be procured for under $25. But be sure that it is not the very thin copper bangles that are sold. We also offer a pure copper and pure silver wire bangle on the astrogems.com website. However we feel the best approach is to get a pure copper and pure silver spring bangle that has an option to also add pure gold spring links as the budget allows. Ideally the complete ratio of weights can eventually be attained in an incremental manner.
Yes, there are quite a few and many more with the nine-gem bangle that some would struggle to believe. For the nine gem astrological bangles we have a testimonial page on Astrogems.com as well as another testimonial page on www.meditationbangles.com with videos. Please feel very welcome to email me at Askastrogems@gmail.com with any well written testimonial experiences you have while wearing the three metal astrological bangle.
As it would be a great service to have a database for individuals who are interested…
35 years ago I arrived back from a trip to India and I had caught some challenging bugs. I went to as SRF naturopath member in Perth, Western Australia (the Tara Center) who had at the time some very high tech electronics that could measure the electrical and frequency strengths of the different meridian lines as a way of evaluating the health of ones bio-electric field. He could tell which organs were stressed or congested with this German computerized medical instrument and we decided to gather a series of complex readings with the three metal bangle on and with it off.
We were both very impressed that with the three metal bangle on the strength of the readings while I had this severe virus were much more healthy and robust than when I removed the bangle and took the readings. It was obvious to both of us that though I had the virus, its intensity and unpleasantness was much less if I kept wearing the three metal bangle and my nine gem bangle. We also did the same tests while wearing the nine gem astrological bangle and discovered the same results for the lower body but more benefit to the upper body areas.
That was a long time ago and just as the house phone back then has been superseded with the incredible smart phone so also the medical German technology of frequency balancing has come an exceptionally long way that compliments greatly Yogananda’s prediction.
If you are interested in this technology related to Yogananda’s reference to vibratory healing I deeply recommend this website.
Once while at Hidden Valley Ashram someone asked Brother Achalananda at satsang about the three metal bangle and he told an interesting story of an individual who experienced blood poisoning in their hand by puncturing their skin. He mentioned that the infected blood could be seen by a darker color traveling up the hand and wrist to the bangle and that when it reached the bangle a most amazing phenomena could be seen and that it was that the darkened blood seems to travel left and right and was not able to pass under the bangle and then after some time the condition receded.
I have heard of many members expressing disbelief that when they first put on the three metal bangle that it seemed to heat up unnaturally. And that it stayed surprisingly hot for quite a period of time before cooling down to body temperature.
If you have any anecdotal or testimonial stories with your three metal bangle, please feel most welcome to send them in to us. It would be good to collect an educational database to gain further insights for all. Please email this helpful info to email@example.com
I am on my fourth bangle after 38 years. The first three had the copper and silver wires crack. I fly a lot and have been required to take them off at security and also have had a much more physically active lifestyle than most. For my fourth bangle I have switched to a three metal spring astrological bangle as seen in the video above.
Below are some pictures of a bangle owned by “Tom”. He bought it in 1978 for a little under $400. He wanted to wear it on his upper arm and he noticed during manual activity that he kept bending it back into shape to keep it in place. This was on account of it opening after he would flex his biceps while doing manual work. Because of this he opted for putting some heat shrinkable tube over the ends to keep it the same size, as he knew that if he kept squeezing it back into ergonomic shape it would soon crack at the silver wire and that this fixed tubing would help prevent it slipping down his arm.
Tom said this worked really well and he has never annealed his bangle as it never bent out of shape with this plastic tubing on it. My feeling is that the plastic tubing lessens the skin contact and so the bangle will not help quite as much. But Tom’s priority was to have a bangle he could forget about, was not inconvenient, and was also out of the way. So for him and many others this heat shrink silicon tubing was the best solution.
Looking closely at these photos you can see how the copper wire has been dissolved away by Tom’s perspiration and hard work over the years. Tom has a weak Mars in his chart and the one metal that would have helped him the most was the copper wire. About 75% of his copper wire has dissolved away by the acidic contact with his perspiration and so for at least the last 15 years or more it has not been touching his skin at all. For all that time he has realistically only been wearing a two metal bangle. Quite a few devotees have this happen to their bangle and so long as the wire doesn’t actually break, they do not get it repaired to have a new copper wire touching the skin again. When we have the time, we do this type of copper wire replacement repair for $140 (2012).
Some individuals can get a little dogmatic about the need to wear only the three metal astrological bangle and they forget that the same metals in other forms can work just as well, provided there’s good skin contact and enough weight. I often suggest to members who cannot afford the three metal bangle that they should wear a bangle of just pure silver and copper to inexpensively strengthen the benefits of the Moon and Mars frequencies in their electrical body.
We sell the much more affordable pure silver and copper wire bangles or the more comfortable copper and silver spring bangles without the gold. This way anyone can take advantage of this wonderful ayurvedic astrological science, even if they’re unable to afford the the full three metal astrological bangle with the gold wire.
Many members somehow think there is a profound magic in wearing all three metals in a very specific formula of weights. Yes, the weights are important but the essential criteria is that they are of the sufficient weight. For example, with gemstones the minimum weight for them to be effective is two carats, but if you wear even more weight they can often be much more effective. Consider that if a 300 pound man wears the three metal wire bangle versus a 100 pound woman, the ratios of bangle to body mass create a different relationship of efficiency. This is only natural to the laws of physics. The physical body acts as a resistor to the conductive abilities of the electrical body and hence a larger body can get more in the way of the bangles’ ability to shift or influence. Throw into the equation a dissolved copper wire on the bangle and you can begin to understand the need for common sense solutions to wear copper another way.
Naturally this is a personal choice that is to be respected. However I have heard some members say, “I don’t need a bangle as I have Master.” I really scratch my head on this one. It’s stated so simply in the Autobiography of a Yogi Chapter 16, “Outwitting the Stars”
“It is only when a traveler has reached his goal that he is justified in discarding his maps. During the journey, he takes advantage of any convenient short cut. The ancient rishis discovered many ways to curtail the period of man's exile in delusion. There are certain mechanical features in the law of karma which can be skillfully adjusted by the fingers of wisdom.”
It’s a common view amongst yogis that any instrument that can lessen karma and hence shorten our distance to union with the universal consciousness is a short cut to take advantage of.
Both Paramahansa Yogananda and Swami Sri Yukteswar wore the more expensive astrological nine gem bangles, as Swami Sri Yukteswar indicated that they are even more powerful than metal astrological bangles. And though I don’t have confirmation that Swami Sri Yukteswar also wore a three metal bangle, we have all seen photos of Master wearing one. So even though they were avatars, they still took advantage of astrological bangles to enhance the play of cosmic forces on their bodies and their ability to compassionately absorb the karma of others.
I remember when I first realized that Master and Sri Yukteswar wore the nine gem bangle (navaratna). I had also seen several senior monastics wearing them and my immediate reaction was “where’s mine”. There was no processing, just the immediate intuitive feeling that I would be greatly helped by wearing a nine gemstone astrological bangle in addition to the three metal bangle I already had. Many of my customers who have worn their nine gem bangles for years are amazed that more devotees and yogis don’t try harder to get one.
For more insights on what Yogananda and Swami Sri Yukteswar wrote regarding the karmically nullifying nine gem bangle, visit this page:
What the Yoga Masters Have To Say.
Copper, silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table, and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and unusually high electrical conductivity.
Together with osmium (bluish), and gold (yellow), copper is one of only three elemental metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells is such that it corresponds to orange light. The same mechanism accounts for the yellow color of gold.
All matter is composed of light in the ultimate quantum or Vedic equation. Years ago, when I visited a laser sign making factory, I found it deeply interesting that the only metals a powerful laser can not cut through or penetrate were pure Copper, Silver, Gold and Lead, which are all classified as the noble metals.
The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical (59.6×106 S/m) and thus also high thermal conductivity, which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are relatively weak for a soft metal.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is a fundamental characteristic property of elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
All elementary particles of a given kind have the same spin quantum number, (rotational momentum) an important part of the quantum state of a particle. When combined with the spin-statistics theorem, the spin of electrons results in the Pauli exclusion principle, which in turn underlies the periodic table of chemical elements. The spin direction (also called spin for short) of a particle is an important intrinsic degree of freedom. And the electrons of Copper have a spin rotation movement of 3/2 .
Crystals have a unique characteristic in that the spinning electrons are in an alignment with the molecular lattice and thus allow for a traveling or amplification of influence down the lattice. This is why they can influence the electrical body of the wearer, as in the gemstone bangles designed by www.astrogems.com
Copper does not react with water, but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen, forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. It will, however, react with an acidic sweat and slowly be dissolved over the years. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air, this oxide layer stops the further, bulk corrosion. So in one sense when the bangle is cleaned, the process often corrodes the patina that would otherwise protect the bangle from further corrosion. A green layer of such is seen on the Statue of Liberty.
Copper is an essential trace element in plants and animals, but not some microorganisms. The human body contains copper at a level of about 1.4 to 2.1 mg per kg of body mass. Stated differently, the RDA for copper in normal healthy adults is quoted as 0.97 mg/day and as 3.0 mg/day. Copper is absorbed in the gut, and then transported to the liver bound to albumin. It enters the bloodstream via the plasma protein called ceruloplasmin, where its metabolism is controlled, and is excreted in bile.
In the last century, millions of people the world over have worn copper bangles, claiming that they lessen the discomfort of arthritic conditions. Because of copper’s role in facilitating iron uptake, copper deficiency can produce anemia-like symptoms, Copper-alloy touch surfaces have natural intrinsic properties to destroy a wide range of microorganisms (e.g., E. coli O157:H7, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus, Clostridium difficile, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and fungi). Some 355 copper alloys were proven to kill more than 99.9% of disease-causing bacteria within just two hours when cleaned regularly.
Copper doorknobs are used by hospitals to reduce the transfer of disease, and Legionnaires' disease is suppressed by copper tubing in plumbing systems. Antimicrobial copper alloy products are now being installed in healthcare facilities in the U.K., Ireland, Japan, Korea, France, Denmark, and Brazil.
Silver is a very ductile, malleable (slightly harder than gold), monovalent coinage metal, with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes.
Among metals, pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity (the nonmetal diamond and superfluid helium II are higher) and one of the highest optical reflectivities.
Silver compounds were used to prevent infection in World War I before the advent of antibiotics. Silver metal dissolves readily in nitric acid (HNO3) to produce silver nitrate (AgNO3), a transparent crystalline solid that is photosensitive and readily soluble in water. However, silver reacts readily with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide H2S to produce silver sulfide, a dark-colored compound, familiar as the tarnish on silver coins and other objects. When a person wearing silver takes a mineral hot bath at a natural spring, their silver jewelry, if worn, will often become black or dark gray in appearance due to the reaction of the silver to sulfur.
The crescent moon has been used since ancient times to represent silver. This is interesting, because in Vedic astrology as well the moon is considered to be represented by the silver metal. The moon is a planet of emotions or feeling, and wearing silver helps to balance and lessen emotional amplification. This in turn helps the wearer not to be so disturbed by the challenges in life.
Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive solid chemical elements.
Because the Earth was molten when it was just formed, almost all of the gold present on Earth sank into the core. One theory that is gaining traction is that most of the gold that is present today in the Earth's crust and mantle was delivered to Earth by asteroid impacts during the late heavy bombardment.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (commonly referred to as the lunar cataclysm, or LHB) is a period of time approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which a large number of impact craters are believed to have formed on the Moon, and by inference on Earth, Mercury, Venus, and Mars as well. The LHB is "late" only in relation to the main period of accretion, when the Earth and the other three rocky planets first formed, and gained the majority of their material; in relation to Earth history as a whole it is still a fairly early phase. The evidence for this event comes primarily from the dating of lunar samples, which indicates that most impact melt rocks formed in this rather narrow interval of time. While many hypotheses have been put forth to explain a "spike" in the flux of either asteroidal or cometary materials to the inner solar system, no consensus yet exists as to its cause.
The main piece of evidence for a lunar cataclysm comes from the radiometric ages of impact melt rocks that were collected during the Apollo missions. The majority of these impact melts are believed to have formed during the collision of asteroids or comets tens of kilometers across, forming impact craters hundreds of kilometers in diameter. The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 landing sites were chosen as a result of their proximity to the Imbrium, Nectaris, and Serenitatis basins. At the time, the conclusion was considered controversial.
, the best or simplest method is to place it on a gas stove cooking ring, until some of the copper wire changes to a dim orange glow color (but not a yellow glow!). Then let it cool down very slowly at room temperature. Do not drop it in water to make it cool more quickly as this will only make the wires more rigid again and reverse the process! Remember, this is what the blacksmiths do to make steel super hard and the same works for all metals, so be sure to let it cool down slowly.
Do not leave the bangle on the grill longer than is necessary if you see a slight tinge of dull red from a glowing metal. Turn the grill off as you have reached past the needed annealing temperature. If it glows orange you are heading towards a possible melt down of the gold wire which has the lowest melting point. So just keep an eye on it. Usually the bangle can reach a sufficient annealing temperature after just a couple of minutes. You will know if it attained the right temperature if has become soft and malleable as the day you received it.
Because I don’t have a gas stove, I put mine on an electric ring turned up full and put a pan of water on top of it to reflect back the extra heat.
This will make the bangle look filthy as all the dirt between the wires carbonizes and the patina that may be on the copper or silver is sulphur based and likely to turn into dark grey flaky material also, thus as I suggested it is a good idea to remove as much residue with an old toothbrush and soapy water before annealing. You will still need to scrub it down after annealing but there will be less to rub off if you pre-scrub it.